Table of Contents
Train features and concepts
Operational modes of train
A train is at any time operated in one of following operational modes: Staff Responsible SR, Shunt mode SH, Full Supervision FS, Automatic Train Operation ATO, Neutral N or power off OFF. The intended operational mode is selected by the train driver using the mode selector at the DMI. The effective operational mode is however depending on mode authorization from the RBC. Mode Neutral is implicit selected, if the RBC does not authorize mode SR, SH or FS. If communication between OBU and DMI is lost, mode ATO is selected after a predefined time.
|Off||The OBU is powered off and the train is at stand still. The train cannot be operated.|
|Neutral||The train is forced to stand still. In this mode the train cannot be operated. Mode N is implicitly allowed.|
|Staff Responsible||The train is running as ordered by the driver via the DMI. No supervision is applied. This mode requires permission from the RBC. By means of a special switch in the OBU, mode SR can be selected also without permission from the RBC. This is mainly for testing.|
|Shunt Mode||The train is running as ordered by the driver via the DMI. Speed is limited by the OBU to a maximum speed given by the RBC. Position is supervised as well, keeping the train within a pre-defined shunting area. Shunt Mode requires permission from the RBC, to ensure the shunt area is available.|
|Full Supervision||The train is running as ordered by the driver via the DMI. Speed and direction is supervised by the OBU based on received movement authorities (MA). If no MA is available or the selected driving direction is opposite the direction allowed by the MA, driving will be prevented.|
|Automatic Train Operation||The train is running automatically as allowed by the RBC via issued MA.|
The purpose of the traction control systrem is to control the train motor based on the driver commands (or commands from the ATO system) in a way that will emulate the behavior of real trains - that is, low acceleration and braking capability and high mass.
For the WinterTrain a simple approach will be used. The driver will control traction in five levels including neutral. The actual traction order (i.e. motor power) for each of these levels will be statically assigned in the OBU. Acceleration and braking will be realized as a linear increase resp. decrease over time of the applied motor power.
The Driver Machine Interface (DMI) provides indications and commands as required for a driver to run the train. As the driver - for good reasons - cannot be in the train, the DMI is realised as a remote control panel with wireless connection to the OBU. A PC based application “PC_DMI” providing the same commands and indications ad the DMI will be available as well.
The DMI provides:
- Operational mode selector (Switch with 5 position)
- DMI off (DMI power down)
- Staff Responsible SR
- Shunt Mode SH
- Full Supervision FS
- Automatic Train Operation ATO
- Direction selector (Switch with 3 position)
- Traction selector (Switch with 5 position)
- Level 4
- Level 3
- Level 2
- Level 1
- Speed (Analog meter)
- Mode Authority (Pilot indicator)
- Mode pending or rejected (red)
- Movement Authority (Pilot indicators)
- Long MA (Green)
- Short MA / shunting allowed (Yellow)
- No MA or at EOA / no shunting (Red)
- Status (Pilot indicators)
- Error (Blue)
- DMI active (White)
- Applied motor power (PC_DMI only)
Operational Mode selector This selector will set the operational mode as defined above given following conditions:
- Mode SR, SH and FS requires permission from the RBC. If the RBC cannot allow mode SR, SH or FS, mode N will implicit be selected. This will stop the train.
- If the selector is set to OFF the DMI will power down, closing the communication with the OBU. Following a period without connection to the DMI, the OBU will change to mode ATO.
- Changing operational mode requires the train to be at stand still and the Direction Selector in position Neutral in order for the selected mode to be effective. If the train is not at stand still or the Direction Selector is not in position Neutral when changing mode, mode N will be selected. In this case, the train will be forced to stop.
- The selected mode will be effective when the Direction Selector is in position Neutral and the train is at stand still.
Direction Selector The Direction Selector is active in mode FS, SH and SR only. In other modes, it has no functionality. However it has to be in position Neutral in order to allow change of operational mode.
Position Forward will select driving direction forward as defined by the type of train. Position Reverse will select the opposite driving direction. In these two positions, an MA request will be send to the RBC, given the current mode is FS and no MA is available. Position Neutral will delete any received MA.
In terms of ETCS, selecting Forward or Reverse is equivalent to performing Start of Mission for the given direction. Selecting Neutral is equivalent to performing End of Mission.
Traction selector The Traction selector is active in mode FS, SH and SR and only when a driving direction has been selected. The selected position will activate the traction control to drive the train accordingly.
- In mode FS traction control is further controlled by the Supervision System. If the remaining distance to EOA is less than a predefined “braking distance”, the maximum traction will be reduced proportionally - eventually forcing the train to stop at EOA.
- Traction is limited in mode SH as well, keeping it below a value given by the RBC. Traction is limited in order to keep the train within a predefined shunting area.
- In mode SR traction is not supervised.
Mode authority indicator This indicator will show whether the selected mode is accepted or not:
- Mode Accepted: The selected mode is accepted (indicator off)
- Mode Pending: Accept of the selected mode is pending (Flashing Red)
- Mode Rejected: The selected mode is rejected (Red)
Movement authority indicator The information in the movement authority indicators depends on the actual mode:
Mode N is indicated as follows:
- STOP (Red)
In mode FS, the MA indicators will be active, showing the actual MA (if available). The MA will be indicated as
- STOP (Red): Train is at EOA or no MA is available for the selected driving direction.
- Short MA (Yellow): MA is available for selected direction, distance to EOA is “short”.
- Long MA (Green): MA is available for selected direction, distance to EOA is “long”.
The MA indicator will flash, if the OBU has intervened driving and is “braking” the train (i.e. reducing traction).
In mode SH, the indicators will be active, showing when shunting is allowed:
- STOP (Red): Train is close to border of the shunting area and is prevented from continuing in selected direction (i.e. is forced to stop).
- Shunting allowed (Yellow): Train may shunt in selected direction.
In mode SR, the indicator will show:
- Staff Responsible (Red / Green): The train is not supervised and the driver has the responsibility.
Status indicators Errors and DMI status are indicated as follows:
- Power on (Yellow): The DMI is active
- No connection to OBU (Steady blue): The DMI has no connection to the OBU
- No traction power (Slow flashing blue): The train has no traction power. OBU is powered by battery.
For the PC_DMI applied motor power (i.e. PWM value) will be indicated as well (mostly for debugging).
Remote take-over of driver interface
Experiences from the previous WinterTrain seasons has shown that a feature enabling remote take-over of the driver interface will be convenient. A train in mode SH or FS will be kind of blocked if the DMI is put aside without changing to mode ATO (or switched off). This happens quite often when goodies are served or the cafe guests (and their kids) turn their attention to something else.
In such a situation the train will be at stand still until mode ATO is selected at the DMI. But if the kids are gone and the waiters are busy doing their job, this may take a while…
This lead to following feature allowing a remote operator - the signaler - take over the control of the train.
In respect to remote take-over of a train each train (i.e. OBU) will at any time be in one of four modes:
|Take-over mode||Description||Possible operational modes|
|DMI||The DMI is active (switched on) and the train is controlled by the driver via the DMI. Or the DMI is off and the train is running in automatic mode (ATO)||N, SR, SH, FS, ATO|
|Remote take-over||The train is operated remotely via the signalers HMI and cannot be operated via the DMI. If the DMI is active (switched on) the Mode Authority Indicator at the DMI will show Mode rejected (Red).||N, SR, SH, FS, ATO|
| || ||SR, SH, FS|
|Pending release of take-over||The train is operated remotely via the signalers HMI and cannot be operated via the DMI. The signaler has requested release of remote take-over. The Mode Authority Indicator at the DMI will show Mode Pending (flashing Red).||SR, SH, FS, ATO|
When required the signaler can via the HMI request or release remote take-over of a specific train:
- If the OBU is in take-over mode DMI and the signaler requests take-over, the train will change to mode N and switch to Remote take-over. If the train was running, it will stop. The signaler HMI for remote take-over will be enabled with the mode and direction selectors in position Neutral.
- If the OBU is in take-over mode Remote and the signaler requests release of take-over and the DMI is switched off, the the OBU will switch to mode ATO and take-over mode DMI.
- If the OBU is in take-over mode Remote and the signaler requests release of take-over and the DMI is switched on and the DMI direction selector is in position Neutral, the the OBU will switch to take-over mode DMI.
- If the OBU is in take-over mode Remote and the signaler requests release of take-over and the DMI is switched on but the DMI direction selector is not in position Neutral, the the OBU will switch to take-over mode Pending Release.
- If the OBU is in take-over mode Pending Release and the DMI is switched off, the OBU will change to take-over mode DMI,
- If the OBU is in take-over mode Pending Release and the DMI is switched on and the direction selector is in position Neutral, the OBU will change to take-over mode DMI,
- If the OBU is in take-over mode Pending Release and the signaler request take-over, the OBU will change to take-over mode Remote take-over,
HMI for remote take-over
The signaler HMI for remote take-over will (per train) be similar to the PC_DMI with two additional buttons: Request take-over and Release take-over and an indication of the actual remote take-over mode.
Train consist and properties
Within the WinterTrain, a train is a locomotive with a number of wagons all considered as one unit. A train is described by following parameters:
|ID||1..99||Unique identification of each particular train|
|Front||(wagon)||Front of the train. This would typically be the locomotive|
|Length||cm||Length of complete train|
|Antenna position||cm||Distance from train front to center of balise antenna|